Around 13,000 BC the climate began to warm rapidly and forests spread through the tundra in the Rhine Valley. In the first millennium after the end of the Ice Age, the Mesolithic Age, humans lived as hunters and gatherers. Flint stone flakes and tools in the ground still mark the Mesolithic encampments on the Norfbach, in the Roselle fault and in the Hummelbachaue in Neuss. Around 5500 BC the agricultural revolution that had developed in the Middle East arrived in the fertile loess soil of the Rhineland – the start of the Neolithic. The farmers of the New Stone Age planted grains, beans and lentils and bred cows, sheep, goats and pigs. The Neuss area was first colonized in the mid-Neolithic, in settlements known from Norf and Rosellen among others. Around 2800 BC the first metal objects – including jewelry and axe and dagger blades made of copper found their way to the Rhine from the south. By 1800 BC bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, had established itself for metalwork to such an extent that the follow ing centur ies are known as the Bronze Age. Finds from this epoch are rare in Neuss. Around 700 BC bronze gave way to iron as the most widely used metal. Finds from the early pre-Roman Iron Age (around 700–500 BC) are known from Allerheiligen, Reuschen berg, Selikum and Gnadental as well as in Neuss city proper. Recently a settlement and a burial site dating from the early pre-Roman Iron Age were excavated at a golf course in Norf.